Senegal, country in western Africa. Located at the westernmost point of the continent and served by multiple air and maritime travel routes, Senegal is known as the “Gateway to Africa.” The country lies at an ecological boundary where semiarid grassland, oceanfront, and tropical rainforest converge; this diverse environment has endowed Senegal with a wide variety of plant and animal life. It is from this rich natural heritage that the country’s national symbols were chosen: the baobab tree and the lion.
The region today known as Senegal was long a part of the ancient Ghana and Djolof kingdoms and an important node on trans-Saharan caravan routes. It was also an early point of European contact and was contested by England, France, Portugal, and the Netherlands before ultimately coming under French control in the late 19th century. It remained a colony of France until 1960, when, under the leadership of the writer and statesman Léopold Senghor, it gained its independence—first as part of the short-lived Mali Federation and then as a wholly sovereign state.
Although Senegal traditionally has been dependent on peanuts (groundnuts), the government has had some success with efforts to diversify the country’s economy. Even so, the country suffered an economic decline in the 20th century, owing in some measure to external forces such as the fall in value of the African Financial Community(Communauté Financière Africaine; CFA) franc and the high cost of debt servicing, as well as to internal factors such as a rapidly growing population and widespread unemployment.
Almost two-fifths of Senegal’s people are Wolof, members of a highly stratified society whose traditional structure includes a hereditary nobility and a class of musicians and storytellers called griots. Contemporary Senegalese culture, especially its music and other arts, draws largely on Wolof sources, but the influences of other Senegalese groups (among them the Fulani, the Serer, the Diola, and the Malinke) are also evident. Wolof predominate in matters of state and commerce as well, and this dominance has fueled ethnic tension over time as less-powerful groups vie for parity with the Wolof majority.
The most important city in Senegal is its capital, Dakar. This lively and attractive metropolis, located on Cape Verde Peninsula along the Atlantic shore, is a popular tourist destination. Although the government announced plans to eventually move the capital inland, Dakar will remain one of Africa’s most important harbours and an economic and cultural centre for West Africa as a whole.
Senegal is home to several internationally renowned musicians and artists. Other aspects of Senegalese culture have traveled into the larger world as well, most notably Senghor’s espousal of Negritude—a literary movement that flourished in the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s and that emphasized African values and heritage. Through events such as the World Festival of Negro Arts, first held in Senegal in 1966, and institutions such as the Fundamental Institute of Black Africa (Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire; IFAN) and the Gorée Island World Heritage site, Senegal honours Senghor’s dictum "We must learn to absorb and influence others more than they absorb or influence us."
Senegal is bounded to the north and northeast by the Sénégal River, which separates it from Mauritania; to the east by Mali; to the south by Guinea and Guinea-Bissau; and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Cape Verde (Cap Vert) Peninsula is the westernmost point of the African continent. The Gambia consists of a narrow strip of territory that extends from the coast eastward into Senegal along the Gambia River and isolates the southern Senegalese area of Casamance.
Senegal is a flat country that lies in the depression known as the Senegal-Mauritanian Basin. Elevations of more than about 330 feet (100 metres) are found only on the Cape Verde Peninsula and in the southeast of the country. The country as a whole falls into three structural divisions: the Cape Verde headland, which forms the western extremity and consists of a grouping of small plateaus made of hard rock of volcanic origin; the southeastern and the eastern parts of the country, which consist of the fringes of ancient massifs (mountain masses) contiguous with those buttressing the massif of Fouta Djallon on the Guinea frontier and which include the highest point in the country, reaching an elevation of 1,906 feet (581 metres) near Népen Diakha; and a large but shallow landmass lying between Cape Verde to the west and the edges of the massif to the east.
Washed by the Canary Current, the Atlantic coast of Senegal is sandy and surf-beaten. Like the rest of the country, it is low except for the Cape Verde Peninsula, which shelters Dakar, one of the finest ports in Africa. The surf is less heavy on the coast south of the peninsula, whereas the coast south of the Saloum River consists of rias (drowned valleys) and is increasingly fringed with mangroves.